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Child-Friendly Spaces References

Page history last edited by knc190@... 13 years ago


Aglo, J. & Lethoko, M. (2001).  Curriculum development and education for living together: Conceptual and managerial challenges in Africa.  Final report of the seminar held in Nairobi, Kenya.

(Resource 01)

  • Information on education in emergencies
  • Information on teaching in the native language (p. 35 -40)
  • Peace Education and Civic Education in post-conflict regions
  • Mini case studies of 11 African countries and steps for rebuilding (some case studies are in French)


UNICEF. (2009).  Education in emergencies in South Asia: Reducing the risks facing vulnerable children.

(Resource 02)

  • Defines the various vulnerabilities
  • Discusses different learning spaces: Child-seeking, Child-friendly, Child-enabling, etc.
  • Potential strategies, innovations, and interventions for addressing education in emergencies
  • 8 country studies (Afganistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka)


UNHCR. (2001).  Learning for a future:  Refugee education in developing countries.  (Resource 03)

  • Reviews the rationale for education in emergencies
  • Great source for case studies/examples for the trainer and for the training


Nicolai, S. (2003).  Education in Emergencies.  Save the Children. (Resource 04)

  • Guide for developing education in emergencies
  • Additional resource recommended: Sesan, B. (1996).  The spark handbook:  A guide for teachers in Zambia's community schools.  Zambia, UNICEF and Ministry of Education.


Orkodashvili, M. (2010). Quality eduation through child-friendly schools: Resource allocation for the protection of children's rights. (Resource 05)

  • "CFSs imply designing world class schools that inspire a love of learning and creat a sense of harmony between the school, the surrounding community and the environment" (p.1).
  • Lists 12 characteristics of child-friendly schools


Nordstrom, Maria.  (2009).  Children's views on child-friendly environments in different geographical, cultural, and social neigbhourhoods.   Urban Studies 47(514).  doi: 10.1177/0042098009349771. (Resource 06)

  • Looks at Horelli's definition of child-friendly environment and provides examples
  • Examines children views on child-friendly environment


Resource 07 - not that helpful


Sriprakash, Arathi. (2010) Child-centered education the promise of democratic learning: Pedgagogic messages in rural Indian primary schools.  International Journal of Educational Development.   __ (__) pp. 297-204. (Resource 08). 

  • A case study in India on the changes made to make a school more child-friendly
  • Great for example for training or for use in the training.


Aguilar, P. & Retamal, G.  Protective environments and quality education in humanitarian contexts.   International Journal of Educational Development.  __ (__)  pp. 3-16.  (Resource 09)

  • Additional information on education in emergencies - small case examples may be useful.


Resource 10 - not a strong resource for this project


Cain, M.S. (2001).  Ten qualities of the renewed teacher. Phi Beta Kappan.  pp. 702-705.  (Resource 11) 

  • Potentially valuable conversation starter or reflection for Unit 1.
  • Discusses 10 traits that teachers should have if they have renewed sense of purpose - one of the goals of this training, I would think, is to rejuvenate teachers.  If they could go down the list and say yes, yes, yes - that would be great!


Resource 12 - more on rights of chlidren but very little and I think we have this covered. :)


Baines, L.A. & Stanley, G.  (2001).  We still want to see the teacher.  Phi Delta Kappan.  pp. 695-696.

(Resource 13)

  • A short article on the balance of child-friendly and letting the children run the class
  • Author gives a perspective on where to draw the line - could be helpful to address teachers with this question or concern.


Houghton, P.  (2001).  Finding allies: Sustaining teachers' health and well-being.  Phi Delta Kappan.  pp. 706-711. (Resource 14)

  • This article "provides some guidelines to help teachers think about what it is that they need in order to be physically and emotionally healthy and about ways to meet those needs".
  • Great advice for helping teachers address all the "weight" on their shoulders


Stecher, B., Bohrnstedt, G., Kirst, M., McRobbie, J. & Williams, T.  (2001).  Class-size reduction in California: A story of hope, promise and unintended consequences.  Phil Delta Kappan.  pp. 670-674. (Resource 15)

  • Probably not of much use - but could be good information to have for teachers who keep saying that they just need smaller classes (something that is probably not going to happen).


Resource 16 - Article by Linda Darling-Hammond not relevant


Kirk, J. & Winthrop, R. (2007).  Promoting quality education in refugee contexts: Supporting teacher development in Northern Ethiopia.  International Review of Education.  53(__) pp. 715-723.  (Resource 17)

  • Examples of the Healing Classrooms Initiative (a very child-centered approach) in Ethiopia
  • Great case study or lesson learned or examples


Resource 18 - not relevant


Kendall, N. (2007).  Parental and community participation in improving education quality in Africa:  Current practices and future possibilities.  International Review of Education.  53: 701-708.  doi:10.1007/s11159-007-9058-8.  Resource 19.

  • Discusses various efforts to involve parents in the schools
  • Great potential for Unit 3


Resource 20. Eh.  Discusses government's level of child-friendliness.  Not very relevant.


UNESCO. (2002).  Embracing diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments (ILFE).  THIS ENTIRE CURRICULUM SHOULD BE MADE AVAILABLE TO TRAINERS.

  • Great comparison on p.22 - Which is more inclusive & child-friendly? and is a great example of an activity that can be used in the training. 
  • p.24 of pdf - A table comparing IFLE to traditional classroom.  Very understandable, practical differences for the training.
  • Great questions for Unit 1 or Unit 2:
    • What type of classroom do I work in?
    • What changes can I introduce to make my classroom more inclusive and learning-friendly?
    • How can I make the topics I teach more interesting for my children so they will want to learn about them?
    • How can I arrange my classroom so that ALL of the children are learning together?
    • Who can help me to creat an ILFE (for example, the Principal, other teachers, my students, parents, and community leaders)?
  • P.27-28.  Teacher brainstorm:  What do you think makes a classroom child-friendly?
    • Teachers can work in pairs or small groups to create a web or poster of the things they think make up a child-friendly classroom
    • Groups share out, making a larger list
    • Look at the UNICEF model for child-friendly:  Are there any we missed?  Do you agree with all of these?  If not, which one and why?  Are there any we had that are not on the UNICEF list?  Do you think it falls under one of these topics?  Why is it still important?
  • Case study with questions - p. 29
  • Checklist for becoming a child-friendly environment pp. 36-42
  • Case study with questions (M school in Thailand) p. 43-44
  • p. 47 Points of resistance exercise.  This is an opportunity for a teacher to think through why he or she or others in the school may be resistant to a child-friendly approach.  If the teacher cannot think of a way to overcome this point of resistance the others in the training may be able to help him or her brainstorm.
  • pp. 59 - 88 - Involving Community.  Great for Unit 3.
  • p.92 - Getting all children in School     
    • Case study examining one student and why he may not be in school
    • Barriers to education - BRAINSTORM (1)
    • Opportunities (2)
    • Great activity for thinking through (1) and (2) p.100-101
    • School mapping - Unit 2 or Unit 3? p. 102
  • Steps for creating lasting change pp. 45-46
  • p. 138 How Students Learn
    • Students learn by doing
    • There are multiple ways students learn:
      • Body or kinesthetic
        • manipulatives
      • Musical or rhythmic
      • Verbal and linguistic
        • Have students explain their thinking
      • Logical or mathematical
      • Visual or spatial
        • manipulatives
        • draw pictures
      • Interpersonal
      • Intrapersonal
    • Reflecting on current practice p. 142
      • Pick one lesson that you enjoy teaching but maybe your students are not performing up to your expectations.  Alternatively, pick a lesson that you would like to teach more enjoyably.
      • What are the major points (information) that you want the children to learn?
      • What methods are you using to communicate this information?  Why do you think they are not working?  For instance, are the children only using one of the pathways of learning?
      • What different activities can you use in your teaching so that children can use several of their senses (sight, sound, movement) in learning?  What different pathways to learning do these activities entail?  (See Shika's ideas in case study)
      • How can you incorporate these activities into your lesson plan?
      • How can your children contribute to designing the lesson, especially those children who usually do not participate in class or those children with diverse backgrounds and abilities?
      • Try out the lesson!  If you feel comfortable doing so, as your students if they enjoyed the lesson.  What activities did they enjoy the most?  Can you use these activities to teach other lessons?
    • Student self-esteem activity p. 143 - How can we as teachers build students' self-esteem?
    • p. 148-149  Tips for teaching & learning
    • p. 150-151 Getting to know you activities - identifying gifts and skills
    • Addressing bullying (might not have time) - 158 - 160
    • Discrimination and bias (including gender bias) p. 160-170
    • Addressing students with disabilities p. 170-177
    • Making learning meaningful.  
      • Connect to community p. 182
    • Gender-awareness in teaching p. 187-190
      • Do, Talk, Record p. 196
      • Think, Ink, Pair, Share p. 203
      • KWLH chart (Know, want to know, learned, how I can learn more)
      • Group work
    • Content specific info and strategies pp. 194-210
  • Classroom Management/ Systems & Procedures
    • Lesson planning is critical
      • Include how you will assist students with special needs
      • Reflect on your lesson at the end
    • Physical Space
      • Room to move
      • Heat, light, ventilation
      • Learning corners
      • Display boards
      • Classroom libraries
      • Checklist for how to improve these things
    • Cooperative Learning
      • Teach to entire class
      • Teach to small groups
      • Individual teaching
      • Change groups frequently, do not label students, organize room in a way that allows for group work, plan lessons in a way that allows group work
      • Give student leadership opportunities
      • Self-directed learning
        • Use data that you give them
        • Read a lesson from a book and be prepared to discuss
        • Teach a partner
      • Differentiation  (TOO MUCH FOR THIS WORKSHOP
    • p. 249 - Checklist for teachers to assess how they discipline
    • Approaches to Positive Discipline: p. 251
      • Whole school approach
      • Establish ground rules
      • Know  your children
      • Manage the learning process and the learning environment enthusiastically and professionally
      • Give learners the opportunity to succeed.
      • Allow learners to take responsibility 
      • Give attention seekers what they want - ATTENTION
      • Be a model.
      • Focus on solutions instead of consequences
      • Talk respectfully
      • Tell them what you want
      • Give choices
      • Use professional assistance
  • p. 254 for teachers to evaluate their classroom
  • Unit on assessment (not sure we have time for this in the training)
  • p. 276 School health and policies .... do we have time to include this?


Resource 22 - Not relevant?


Resource 23 - Could be useful if we need more information on gender-equality in the classroom.  But I think we'll have enough.


Tzuo, P.W. (2007).  The tension between teacher control and children's freedom in child-centered classroom:  Resolving the practical dilemma through a closer look at the related theories.  Early Childhood Education Journal.  35(1)  pp. 33-39. doi:10.1007/s10643-007-0166-7. (Resource 24)

  • Addresses different approaches to teaching and the balance again of student-centered, student-run and teacher-centered


Hole In The Wall Camps. (2005). Building Blocks Curriculum.  (Resource 25)


(Resource 26)  Healing Classrooms Initiative

This website focuses on the child-friendly spaces in conflict and post-conflict areas.


(Resource 27) HREA lessons plans

This will be helpful for the training portion of the curriculum (Thanks Kat!)


Miske, S.J. (2010). Child-friendly schools: Safe schools.  Keynote Speech.  Second International symposium on Child Risk and in Need of Protection. (Resource 28)


UNICEF. (  ).  Mozambique: Child-friendly schools for Africa.  (Resource 29)


Resource 30.


(Resource 31) UNICEF Teachers Talking About Learning

Incredible resource that discusses the roles of the teacher, learner and community - includes ideas on creating a child-friendly classroom with lessons and activities and has a link to discussions among teachers (potentially great ideas for discussions or case studies in the training)


(Resource 32)  http://www.unicefusa.org/work/education/child-friendly-schools/


"The Child-Friendly School model is a simple one:

  • Schools should operate in the best interests of the child;
  • Educational environments must be safe, healthy and protective;
  • Classrooms should be endowed with trained teachers and adequate resources; and
  • Within them, children's rights must be protected and their voices must be heard.

Learning environments must be a haven for children to learn and grow, with respect for their identities and varied needs. The Child-Friendly model promotes inclusiveness, gender-sensitivity, tolerance, dignity and personal empowerment. "


(Resource 32) UNICEF.  Situation Analyses.



(Resource 33) CHC Tools for Teachers

Pedagogy for Student Well-Being, Teacher Seminars for Creating Healing Classrooms, IRC Child Protection Program, Herat, Afghanistan

Modules that provide activities:

p. 58 - Comparison of teaching styles.

p. 60 - Teaching methods:  Storytelling, Pair work, Group works, Teaching materials


(Resource 34) CHC Guide for Teachers

p.17-18 Expressive and Participatory activities for lessons

pp. 19-20 Ways to diversify teaching styles

pp. 21-22 Classroom Management Strategies

pp. 25-34 Lessons for training - child-friendly classrooms, activities, and management



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