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Appendices

Page history last edited by Stephanie Knox 9 years ago

Appendices

1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

 

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, therefore,The General Assembly

proclaims

This Universal Declaration of Human Rights

as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11

(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.

(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14

(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15

(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16

(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17

(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

(2) Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.

(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948)

Adopted on December 10, 1948 by the General Assembly of the United Nations (without dissent)

Available at: http://www.udhr.org/UDHR/default.htm

 

2. Convention on the Rights of the Child

Convention on the Rights of the Child
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989
Entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49

 

Preamble

The States Parties to the present Convention, Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,

Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,

Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,

Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,

Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,

Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children,

Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",

Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,

Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child, Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,

Have agreed as follows:

Part I

Article 1

For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

Article 2

1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.

3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.

Article 4

States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.

Article 5

States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 6

1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.

2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

Article 7

1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.

2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.

Article 8

1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.

2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.

Article 9

1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.

2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.

3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests.

4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.

Article 10

1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.

2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 11

1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.

2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 13

1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.

2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.

Article 14

1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

Article 15

1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 16

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.

2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 17

States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health.

To this end, States Parties shall:

(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;

(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;

(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;

(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;

(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.

Article 18

1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.

2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.

Article 19

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.

2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.

Article 20

1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.

2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.

3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.

Article 21

States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:

(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;

(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin;

(c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;

(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;

(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.

Article 22

1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.

2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present Convention.

Article 23

1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active participation in the community.

2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child's condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child.

3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development

4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 24

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.

2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:

(a) To diminish infant and child mortality;

(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care;

(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution;

(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers;

(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;

(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services.

3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.

4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 25

States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.

Article 26

1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.

2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.

Article 27

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.

2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.

3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.

Article 28

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:

(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.

3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 29

1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:

(a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

Article 30

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.

Article 31

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.

2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.

Article 32

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.

2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular:

(a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;

(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;

(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article.

Article 33

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.

Article 34

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:

(a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;

(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;

(c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

Article 35

States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.

Article 36

States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare.

Article 37

States Parties shall ensure that:

(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 38

1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.

2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.

3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

4. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.

Article 39

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.

Article 40

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.

2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that:

(a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed;

(b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence;

(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;

(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings.

3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Article 41

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:

(a) The law of a State party; or

(b) International law in force for that State.

PART II

Article 42

States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.

Article 43

1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall consist of eighteen experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems.

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.

5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.

7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.

8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.

9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.

10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.

11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.

12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.

Article 44

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights

(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;

(b) Thereafter every five years.

2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.

3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.

4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.

5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.

6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

Article 45

In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:

(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;

(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;

(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;

(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

Part III

Article 46

The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

Article 47

The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 50

1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.

2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties.

3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.

2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.

3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General

Article 52

A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 53

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.

Article 54

The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. In witness thereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Convention.

3. Additional Peace Education Resources

Throughout this course we have provided Additional Resources relevant to each section which direct you to other organizations or materials that may be of interest and value to you. In this appendix we would like to highlight key resources and organizations that we feel are essential to peace education.

Curricula and Lesson Plans

The following programs were consulted in designing this program, and provide additional resources for teachers.

Learning to Abolish War: Teaching Towards a Culture of Peace

Developed by Betty A. Reardon and Alicia Cabezudo

Hague Appeal for Peace, 2002

http://www.haguepeace.org/index.php?action=resources

Includes three books: Book 1 – Rationale for Approaches to Peace Education

Book 2 – Sample Learning Units

Book 3 – Sustaining the Global Campaign for Peace Education – Tools for Participation

Inter-Agency Network of Emergency Education Peace Education Programme

Editorial coordination by Antonella Verdiani

Developed and endorsed by UNESCO, UNHCR, UNICEF and INEE

http://www.ineesite.org/index.php/post/peace_education_programme/

Includes manuals for teachers, teacher trainers, and community workshops. It also has an two Teacher Activities Books which contain extensive lesson plans.

Teaching Tolerance

Southern Poverty Law Center

http://www.splcenter.org/what-we-do/teaching-tolerance

Provides extensive lesson plans and teaching resources on themes related to peace education.

Teach for Peace

http://www.zisman.ca/peace/

Extensive lesson plans and web resources for peace education

Peace Media Clearinghouse

http://peacemedia.usip.org/

Collection of key audio and visual resources and best practices related to conflict management.

 

Peace Education Organizations

Global Campaign for Peace Education

http://www.peace-ed-campaign.org/

Produces a monthly newsletter on peace education news and events.

International Institute on Peace Education

http://www.i-i-p-e.org/index.html

Annual event that brings peace educators from around the world together in a learning community.

Other Key Organizations

Alternatives to Violence Project International

http://www.avpinternational.org/

Offer experiential training programs on handling conflict in creative ways.

Ojai Foundation

http://www.ojaifoundation.org/

Offers experiential workshops on compassionate communication as a way of life.

Additional Professional Development Opportunities

Human Rights Education Associates

http://www.hrea.org

Offers online courses relating to human rights education

To subscribe to the Global HREA listserv, email scourchesne@hrea.org

University for Peace

http://www.upeace.org

Offers masters degrees relating to peace and conflict, including a Master of Arts in Peace Education, and also offers selected online classes

Transcend Peace University

http://www.transcend.org/tpu/

Transcend, founded by renowned peace scholar Johan Galtung, is the world’s first online peace university, and offers a variety of online courses relating to peace.

Professional Networks

Teachers Without Borders Groups Site for Peace Education

http://groups.teacherswithoutborders.org/en/peace-education

TWB’s Group page for Peace Education, where members can dialogue, collaborate, and share resources.

Peace and Collaborative Development Network

http://www.internationalpeaceandconflict.org

Online network of over 16,000 peacebuilders which contains extensive resources relating to the peace and conflict field.

Peace By Peace

http://www.peacexpeace.org

An online community which focuses on raising women’s voices and building a culture of peace.

 

4. Creative Arts Supplement

The problems that exist in the world today cannot be solved by the level of thinking that created them.

- Albert Einstein

Building a peaceful world requires creativity since the problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of awareness or consciousness that created them.  Students need to have the skills to think “outside of the box,” and creative arts such as poetry, creative writing, theater, art, and music can be used to help students cultivate skills for creative thinking.  Creative arts also help students access their emotions and feelings, which is an essential step in learning to respect the feelings of others and developing empathy. In this section, we will explore some ways in which you can use creative arts in your classroom. These examples are designed to help you think about how you can use creative arts as an approach to peace education. The possibilities for using creative arts in peace education are nearly endless, and we hope that these examples will help inspire your own creativity.

Poetry

Poetry has had an important role in peace movements throughout history, as poets have challenged violent systems and oppression.  It has also been used as a form of self-expression and a path to develop inner peace.  Students can benefit from reading and analyzing poems as well as writing their own. 

 

Although writing poetry can sometimes be intimidating for students, there are various successful ways to integrate poetry into your classroom practice.  One way is to encourage students to write poetry that relates to their daily lives.  Students may also write poetry collectively, which allows students to develop teambuilding skills through the collaborative learning process, and also may make students feel more comfortable about writing poetry. The Sample Lesson below gives an example of a group poetry writing exercise.

 

In general, teachers need to gauge how much structure students will need in writing poems.  Some students, typically younger students, find that structure, such as using rhyming or a set number of syllables, makes writing poetry easier.  However, other students find such structures to be limiting.  Therefore, it is important to keep your students in mind when deciding on the structure of the creative writing activities in your classroom.

Getting Started: Suggested Activity

A very simple way to get students to write poems is this simple three-stanza poem exercise. Begin by assigning students another identity, and then ask them to write a three-stanza poem from the character’s perspective. The first stanza should be about the past, the second stanza about the present, and the third stanza should be a plea or appeal to the audience. It is a very simple exercise, but it helps students realize that they may be more comfortable writing poetry than they originally thought. Many students who didn’t think they could write poetry may be surprised at their writing abilities after completing this exercise.

Sample Lesson – Poetry

Collective Poetry (Winfield, n.d.)

Collective poetry is an exercise designed to encourage students to work from a shared pattern in order to join their voices in a collective rhythm.

We all have stories. In telling our personal narratives, we come to know each other and ourselves. What are the lyrics of your students' favorite songs? What happens when children begin to imagine this country or their homeland before they were born? What happens when children and their teachers begin to explore the stories of ordinary people, families and self?

This activity creates opportunities for students to write poetry, investigate history, distinguish between the ideas of fact and opinion and participate in the dramatic reading of a story poem.

Woven into the curriculum is the theme of patterns. People are connected to each other through societal patterns. Families are woven into a genetic pattern based on ancestry. Poets and artists often use patterns to express their art. The lesson objectives include student exploration, analysis and creation of patterns.

Collective poetry is an exercise designed to encourage students to work from a shared pattern in order to join their voices in a collective rhythm. It builds community and encourages participation from those too shy to share individually.

Collective Poem Procedure

Give students a 3-by-5 card.

Ask students to number 1 to 5 on the left border.

Then ask them to list:

  1. What your parents/guardians say that annoys you, makes you laugh, makes you feel safe or scares you.

  2. Your favorite sound three times.

  3. Your favorite place in the world.

  4. Your favorite color five times.

  5. Your favorite thing to do.

Ask five students to collectively read their poems. They take turns each reading one line at a time. They read each line in any order until they each have read all five phrases. For instance, the first student might choose to first read his or her favorite sound. After the others choose and read a line, then the first student chooses a second line to read, as do the others, until all five students have read all five lines.

Here is an example of how the first line read of a collective poem might sound with five readers participating:

Student 1: blue, blue, blue, blue, blue

Student 2: in my pink bedroom with my butterfly bear

Student 3: not until you finish your homework

Student 4: tick-tock, tick-tock, tick-tock

Student 5: Whatever!

The lyrical and rhythmic way the collective poem flows often pleasantly surprises both audience and actor. Introduce the idea of patterns with this activity, explaining how the pattern they used to create their list transfers into the rhythm of the collective poem.

Music

Music is a wonderful tool for peace education, as music has the power to transcend all kinds of borders.  Listeners do not always need to understand the words to feel the song's rhythm and feel a connection to the message. Teachers should try to harness the power of music in their classrooms as part of a peace education curriculum. Music can and should be taught as its own class, but music can also be integrated into all areas of the curriculum.

One way to use music is to incorporate music from a variety of cultures for performance and/or practice by the students.  Music can be a great tool to foster students' interest in other cultures, and can be used as an introduction to deeper cultural explorations, such as examining the cultural values that are portrayed in a song's lyrics. Music is also an effective way to study languages.

 

Another way to use music is to allow students to create their own music.  This can mean that students make their own instruments or create their own lyrics or entire songs.  In the creation of their own songs students can talk about songs that they know and what they like about these songs.  Students can discuss the role of music in their personal lives as well as their society, and explore the meaning of song lyrics and the emotions that songs evoke.

 

One exciting way to incorporate music into the classroom is to create collective music. Working together on a musical enterprise also allows students to learn important skills of cooperation and teamwork that are important to the general concept of peace.  Making music should rarely be a solitary activity.

Teachers can also use popular music from the past and present to study different issues. For example, teachers can use music in a history class to highlight issues that were important to the generation being studied. Popular music can also be analyzed and serve as a tool for dialogue. Students often listen to music outside the classroom, so using music that is popular can be a way for teachers to connect with their students.  

Sample Lesson – Music

 

The Sounds of Change

(Adapted from Teaching Tolerance http://www.tolerance.org/activity/sounds-change ) 

Music can create powerful connections between people, help us learn about different cultures, shatter stereotypes, question social injustices and inspire us to create “the world as it should be.” Its purpose extends beyond entertainment to educate, inspire, represent people, influence and change society, and provide social commentary. For young people, in particular, it can prompt investigation and action and help them make sense of the world. This lesson challenges students to analyze and reflect on the messages and lessons of song lyrics and create their own outlets to express a viewpoint or message related to tolerance that is important to them.

Objectives

Activities will help students:

 

  • Explain how music evokes feelings and emotion.

  • Understand relationships between music and culture.

  • Analyze song lyrics to critically examine themes and messages.

  • Consider the effectiveness of music to communicate ideas.

  • Use music to express a personal viewpoint or message about a tolerance-related issue that’s important to them.

 

Essential Questions

  • What can we learn from music?

  • What is the role of music in society?

  • Are young people influenced by the music they listen to?

  • What responsibilities do songwriters have to use their platforms for positive change?

  • Why is the viewpoint of songwriters relevant? 

 

Early Grades (3-5)

Language Arts, Social Studies, Music

1. As a class, discuss the following questions:  

  1. How many of you like listening to music?

  2. What are the reasons you listen?

  3. How does music make you feel?

  4. Do you think you can learn anything from music? If so, what?

 

2. On the board, create a list of your favorite songs. Do classmates share similar or different choices? Why might that be? Is it okay to have different musical choices than your friends? Would you be willing to listen to a new song if a friend recommended it?

 

3. What makes a song “good” in your opinion? A good sound? Interesting words?

 

4. When you listen to a song, do you really listen to its words or just sing it? Sometimes the same person who sings a song writes the words (lyrics) or the music. Other times different people develop the sound, write the words, and sing it. Often, the songwriter is trying to share a message or point of view with the audience. Can you think of any songs where the songwriter is trying to share a particular message? Refer back to the list you created at the beginning of the lesson for possible examples.

 

5. Look at the lyrics to a song that from your culture or another culture. Either print handouts of the song’s lyrics, write the lyrics on the board, listen together, or sing the song together.

 

6. After you listen to the song or read the lyrics, draw a picture or write a few sentences about the message of the song.

7. Share your interpretations with other students. Can you identify any metaphors in the song? (A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word of phrase that ordinarily represents one thing is used to represent something else.)

 

8. What do you think the writer/composer hoped would happen when people listened to the song? Do you think the same message would be important or relevant in today’s society (if the song is from the past)? Why or why not?

 

9. Within your group, brainstorm about other messages/viewpoints that songwriters could sing about that would be relevant to tolerance in your school or community. Think about tolerance of other groups including those with disabilities, those of different religions, ethnic backgrounds, or viewpoints, or those who come from different neighborhoods.

 

10. Imagine you are a current singer or songwriter who has been asked to write a song about one of these issues to sing at your next concert. Pick the issue you would like to write a song about. Then, write a paragraph about the song you will write including the issue you’ve chosen, why it’s important to you, why you think it’s relevant in your school or community, and what message you would want your song to share.

 

12. Finally, create a title for your song and a CD cover that illustrates its message.

 

Art

Art is a powerful way to engage students of all ages and developmental levels, and can be an important way for students to express emotions and relationships.  It can be especially relevant for students who may not be as strong in reading and writing, as it allows them to express and make their opinions known.  Art also has a long history as a mechanism for social change and therefore it is important for students to be able to work with this medium. Like music, art can be taught as its own subject, and can also be integrated into all other subject areas. The following are some examples and suggestions from successful uses of art in peace education. 

Sample Techniques

Posters

Many organizations have poster contests as a way to get students excited about a particular issue.  Students can create posters for a specific day (for example, International Human Rights Day on December 10) or they can create posters for any number of school events or campaigns that relate to peace.  This activity can be a contest or not, depending on the intention of the lesson. 

Traditional Artwork

Students can learn about other cultures by creating art that represents traditional or cultural art from various regions of the world. Working with arts and crafts from other cultures teaches students how to understand and respect diversity. From this exercise students can apply what they have learned to create their own cultural artwork that represents their contemporary realities.     

Inner Peace Tree

In this exercise, you will need paper and an object to hang the paper on (either a real tree, or another object to symbolize the tree). Students are given three pieces of paper cut out in the shape of leaves. One leaf represents the personal, one leaf represents the local (community, school, family) and one leaf represents the global. On each leaf, students write a message that starts with “I feel peace when…” and complete the sentence with respect to each level. Then, students hang their leaves on the tree (or post them on a wall in the classroom). This activity can be used to have a dialogue about inner peace and what peace means to the students in their own lives.

War Toys to Peace Art

War Toys to Peace Art (n.d.) is a program that was started in British Columbia, Canada.  Through this program, students learn about how violence is communicated through the media, video games, or toys. Students then begin collecting war toys, such as guns and toy soldiers, from the student body. The students use these war toys to create a new piece of art work.  Their new art work represents whatever peace means to them, as individuals or as a group.  

"Don't Box Me In" Shoeboxes

To explore issues of prejudice, stereotypes and identity, try this activity called "Don't Box Me In." Students use shoeboxes and cover the outside with stereotypes that people may falsely hold true about them and then cover the inside with words or images that represent who they really are.

Quilts

To learn about immigration or multiculturalism, students can create quilts, which represent harmony because of all the different elements that work together to create a larger whole. 

Art Exchange

Any of the above projects can be used in Art Exchanges where students exchange their artwork with students from other parts of the globe, the country, or their community to learn about differences and discuss diverse perspectives.     

Theatre

Theatre and drama are important tools for peace education. In particular, theatre can be used to explore themes of social justice, equality, and other issues that are relevant to the students’ lives. In this section we will explore one form of theatre that is based on the philosophy of Paulo Freire, called Theatre of the Oppressed.

Theatre of the Oppressed

As mentioned in the earlier section on Paulo Freire, Theatre of the Oppressed is a way of applying peace education principles of dialogue and critical thinking to the art of theatre. While theatre in itself is a form of informal education that can be used anywhere, from public parks to real theater venues, theatre is also a great way to engage students in the classroom. Of particular interest to educators might be the Theatre of the Oppressed workshops, designed by Augusto Boal.

 

There are as many forms of Theatre of the Oppressed as there are performers. Here is a list of some of the most common forms:

Simultaneous dramaturgy - when the actors stop the action and ask the audience for their opinions about how to resolve the situation, promoting dialogue between the actors and the audience.

Image theatre - actors are asked to mold or sculpt their bodies or the bodies of others to form an idea, emotion, or situation, then move into a group and reform images to form a bigger picture or image. This form emphasizes using the body, rather than speech, as the medium of expression.

Forum theatre - after the performers act out a situation, audience members are invited to come to the stage and take the role of one of the performers to try to resolve the situation.

Newspaper theatre - a series of techniques used to get the audience to transform news stories into a theatrical scene.

Invisible theatre - a previously rehearsed play performed in a public space where the public is not informed that it is a performance. 

Sample Lesson – Theatre

 

The following lesson is an example of using Theatre of the Oppressed in the classroom (Teaching Tolerance, n.d.).

Circle Sculpture

Level: Grades 6 to 8, Grades 9 to 12

Subject: Social Studies

An introduction to the Theatre of the Oppressed

*This lesson plan is to accompany the Teaching Tolerance magazine article "Flipping the Script on Bias and Bullies"

Framework "It isn't easy theater," director Jeannie LaFrance said. "But it's awesome." She was talking about the Theatre of the Oppressed, a set of theatrical techniques that challenge our most basic assumptions about drama. By blurring the line between actor and audience, Theatre of the Oppressed can shake your students out of complacency and make them feel empowered to confront injustice in an effective, nonviolent manner. These techniques can attract students who wouldn't normally get involved in drama – and implementing them doesn't cost a lot of money.

It does take work. However, if you take the time to introduce these techniques and create a safe environment for self-expression, you will find that students make rapid progress.

The four-day plan, based on the "circle sculpture" technique, gives you a step-by-step look at how to introduce the Theatre of the Oppressed in your classroom.

Objectives Students will learn the techniques of "circle sculpture" and perform as "spect-actors" in a performance about a topic that is important to their community.

Time & Materials Four class sessions (one to introduce the process and the others to teach each variation on the process) Chalk and chalkboard (or marker and dry erase board) Newsprint or posterboard and markers

A Note on Classroom Environment The first step this multi-day lesson involves safety and trust building. Take special care while guiding the activities to ensure that each student feels valued and heard, and that all opinions, thoughts, and feelings are considered equal.

Remember, once trust has been established, the community's growth and learning can be both rapid and deep. At the conclusion of these activities, students can emerge with a shared experience that is powerful and transformational. Trust the process, your students and yourself.

ProcessDay 1 By deconstructing a quote from theater artist/educator Michael Rohd, and engaging in a warm-up activity, students will begin to explore the techniques of the Theatre of the Oppressed.

Quote Activity 1. Write the following quote on the board:"Theatre allows us to converse with our souls, to passionately pursue and discover ways of living with ourselves and with others." Michael Rohd, theatre artist & educator 2. Ask three or four different students to read the quote aloud. 3. Ask students to pair up and share with their partner an example of a play, movie, television program or other performance piece they believe is an example of what Michael Rohd is describing. 4. Brainstorm a list of emotions associated with their examples. Write the responses on the board.

Explain to your students that the series of activities you have planned for them over the next few days may bring up some emotions mentioned on the list. Let them know that you will do all you can to create a safe space for learning. Encourage them to take personal responsibility for doing their part to maintain that safe space.

Warm-up/Energizer Warm-ups and energizers are essential in preparing students for theater work. They create a safe space for self-expression and cause shift in the way students engage with a particular theme.

Warm-ups and energizers not only get the group started, they foster a safe and playful interaction among the participants. In addition, the group gets an opportunity to begin participating in structured activities in which they will be asked to use their bodies in a new way. This shifts them from their automatic responses and habits, and sets them up to engage a topic from a new perspective.

Cover the Space This movement activity will help students shift from the traditional classroom format. With the exception of directions coming from you, this is a silent exercise.

Designate an open space. You may mark it off with physical boundaries like desks or chairs, or you may simply designate the space.

Tell students to start walking around the space. Direct them to try to cover every inch of the designated space. They should keep walking. No talking or physical contact are allowed. After a few minutes, ask students to be aware of their bodies. Though they can't talk, they should look at one another. Ask to them become aware of the floor, the space underneath their feet. After a few more minutes, let them know it is their job, as a group, to ensure that the entire space is covered at all times. Tell them when you call "freeze" they should stop. Once they have stopped, give them feedback on how well they are covering the space, then "unfreeze" and resume walking. Keep it going until you are satisfied that the group has become completely focused on the task of "covering the space."

Follow-up questions for the class 1. How do you feel about the energy and focus you brought to the exercise? 2. What helped to keep you focused? What happened when you were not focused? 3. How did it feel to do this in silence? Were there times when you wanted to speak? 4. Did the group "cover the space?"

Framing the Issue Everyone sits in a circle and brainstorms about an issue you will be exploring with the group. For example, you can ask the group to share thoughts or concerns they have regarding the increase in anti-black hate incidents across the country in the month after Barack Obama's election.

You can either go around the circle or call on students to raise their hands. It's not a dialogue at this point. People briefly say what's on their mind and others listen.

After hearing the thoughts and concerns just shared, you ask the group for single words that come to mind around this issue. These can be themes or emotions (i.e., fear, anger, guns, crime, jealousy, race, harassment).

You write them down as they're called out. Aim for a list of 30-50 single words. When you've finished, read the list back to them. This list will serve as a blueprint for the rest of the activity, but it is also one that you'll likely return to again and again.

Debrief Students should return to pairs to share feelings raised by today's activities. After each partner has an opportunity to share, ask the pairs to select one feeling word that captures some of what both partners shared. They should write the word on an index card, without signing their names, and turn it in. (You will add the words to the list created earlier.)

Return to whole group and thank everyone for their participation. Let them know when the process will continue.

Day 2 Warm up/gameThe Wind Blows

Start by having everyone sit in a circle of chairs. Pull one chair out of the circle so that one person does not have place to sit. You may want to ask who would like to volunteer to pull their chair out.

The object of the activity is to have one person stand in the center and share a statement with the group – a statement that is true for the student. For instance, if the student is nervous about a test, she or he can share that. The statement doesn't have to be true for everyone, just for the student in the center.

The statement must be shared in this format: "The wind blows if...(insert statement)". The person in the center can share anything they feel comfortable sharing. For example, "The wind blows if you are feeling happy today" or "the wind blows if you are the eldest in your family."

The "wind" has just blown, and the participants, like leaves, must find a new location if this statement is also true for them. This is the opportunity for the person standing in the center to take an open chair before another individual takes it. Whoever is left in the center, without a seat, is the one who will share next.

You can play the game for 10-15 minutes depending on your group. As they find a rhythm, you may remind them that they can share about experiences, likes and dislikes, family, etc.— whatever feels safe.

Follow-up questions 1. Were you surprised by the things people chose to share in the group? 2. If you were in the middle, how did you decide what to share? 3. Were you honest in your responses? Did you change seats each time the statement was true for you? 4. How do you feel about being a part of this group right now?

Reframing the issue Ask students to recall the community issue they explored in the last class session. Read students a recent news report about that issue (for instance, if your class chose to talk about racial backlash incidents following the election of Barack Obama, you might select a story about one of those incidents.)

Ask each person to select a single word from the list they generated during the last class session – a word that characterizes what was shared from the news report.

Partner Sculpt Everyone gets a partner. One partner will start as the sculptor, the other as clay.

Demonstrate to the group how to sculpt human clay. The sculptor can sculpt by touching the "clay" and moving his or her partner into place or by mirroring and showing them the position they should take. The sculptor cannot talk. The activity is silent.

You call out a word from the list and the sculptor uses the clay to create an image in response to the word, to make a piece of art. The goal is not to illustrate the word or to play charades. It is to shape, imagine, and create. The image can be realistic, abstract, concrete, or symbolic. There are no right or wrong images! It doesn't have to have a "meaning". It can come from a thought or a feeling.

After the sculptors have sculpted, they can walk around and look at others' images. There should be a gallery of responses to the word. When every sculptor has returned to their image you say "clay, relax" and the clay and sculptor trade places.

Go back and forth through a variety of words until you feel ready to move on.

Debrief 1. How do you feel about your participation today? 2. Did you prefer being the clay or the sculptor? 3. Were you able to express what you wanted through this exercise? Why or why not?

Congratulate the students on their hard work. Encourage them to talk to others about what they experienced today. Remind them when the group meets again.

Day 3 Group Sculpt Everyone gets into groups of four or five. Each group will pick someone to sculpt first.

You call out a word and they sculpt. This time they have more pieces of clay to work with. However, just because they have more bodies, doesn't mean that they have to sculpt a realistic story or scene. They can, but they can also sculpt abstract images. They have to sculpt quickly and silently.

During each round of words, you can relax all the images but one and allow everyone to see each other's work. You go around the room until each image has been featured and then move to the next word. You want to make sure each group member has a chance to sculpt at least once before moving on.

Day 4 Warm up/game Shape & NumberCircle Sculpt Everyone stands in a circle and three people get in the middle. You call out a word from the list and the three people create an image on their own. They are all clay and they simply find a position in relation to each other as you count to five. On "five," you call out "freeze" and they hold whatever position they are in.

Explain to the rest of the group that they are looking at one out of an infinite number of possible images for this word. They will now have a chance to re-sculpt that image as much as they like. Anyone can step into the circle and re-sculpt. One at a time, the group tries to share as many images as they can. They sculpt silently and pause a few seconds between images. This continues until you stop the round and go on to a new word.

Debrief Tips on Processing the Images • If you want to talk about an image, ask what people see. Whatever responses they give are valuable. Make a point of not trying to have them answer in a certain context. Just ask what they see. • Have people tell the story they see in the image. Push for as many different stories as you can get. • As they walk around and look at images, remind them to see the images, not just glance at the

References

Arts for Peace: Peace Education Through Arts, Culture and Exposure. (n.d.). Retrieved from

      http://www.arts-for-peace.org/index.html   

 

Fountain, S. (1999). Peace Education in UNICEF. Manuscript in preparation. Retrieved from

      www.unicef.org/girlseducation/files/PeaceEducation.pdf 

 

Oragami Peace Tree Project (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.peacetree.info/main.php

 

Projects. (n.d.). International Art Partnership Peace Tree . Retrieved from

      http://www.iap-peacetree.org/iap/projects.html

 

Radiant Peace Education Awards. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Radiant Peace Foundation

      International, Inc. website: http://www.radiantpeace.org/trpeaix.html

 

Teaching Tolerance (n.d.). Circle Sculpture. Retrieved from http://www.tolerance.org/activity/circle-sculpture

 

Towards a Culture of Peace. (n.d.). Looking at Peace Education. Retrieved from

     http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/peaceed/pe_ednetcurriculum.html  

 

War Toys to Peace Art. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wartoystopeaceart.com/workshop.html   

Winfield, M. Collective Poetry. Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved from http://www.tolerance.org/activity/collective-poetry

Additional Resources

Playing for Change: Peace Through Music

http://www.playingforchange.com/

This project started as a documentary film to show the universal language of music as it transcends cultural and national borders. The filmmakers traveled the world getting footage of street musicians in various countries performing the same songs, and layered the musicians over one another, creating a global concert. The documentary is a great resource for showing the power of music for peace. The organization's non-profit branch (www.playingforchange.org) promotes music education and has started music schools in underserved areas around the world.

 

5. Quizzes

Unit 1 Quiz

 

  1. The field of peace education has been influenced by

    1. the academic field of peace studies

    2. international organizations such as the UN

    3. social justice movements.

    4. all of the above

  2. With regards to the history of peace education, peace education

    1. started after World War II

    2. is as old as human history, as humans have tried to find ways to live peacefully with one another and teach the next generations

    3. began in the early 1900s

    4. is a new field that started in the 1990s

  3. With regards to its definition, peace education

    1. has a single definition that should be memorized

    2. is hard to define because of it encompasses many different subtopics, theories and thinkers

    3. cannot be defined

    4. none of the above

  4. Which of these thinkers was NOT influential in the peace education field?

    1. Paulo Freire

    2. Johan Galtung

    3. Friedrich Nietzche

    4. Maria Montessori

  5. According to John Dewey, the purpose of education is

    1. to provide people with the skills and knowledge to use their limitless potential to be the best that they could be as individuals

    2. to make citizens who are more obedient to their governments

    3. to demoralize students and promote violence

    4. none of the above

  6. In Dewey’s philosophy, the classroom learning environment

    1. is less important than the content of a class

    2. plays a central role in the educational process

    3. requires little structure or planning

    4. none of the above

  7. With regards to citizenship, Dewey thought that

    1. nationalism and patriotism helped to promote peace

    2. an idea of global citizenship was necessary in order to deconstruct the ideas that societies are different and war is inevitable

    3. students should focus on their own country rather than an international perspective

    4. global citizenship is not possible

  8. Maria Montessori believed that in order for children to learn,

    1. they should be able to do whatever they want in the classroom

    2. they need much discipline from the teacher

    3. they require a balance of freedom within limits

    4. they need a strict structure to guide them

  9. The role of the teacher in the Montessori classroom is

    1. to prepare the environment and facilitate the learning of the students

    2. to discipline the students

    3. to sit back and allow the children to run free in the classroom

    4. to tell the children what they should know

  10. The Montessori method of conflict resolution, or the Peace Rose,

    1. encourages students to avoid conflict

    2. gives the teacher ultimate authority over conflicts in the classroom

    3. allows the children to solve their own conflicts

    4. none of the above

  11. According to Paulo Freire, the banking system of education

    1. is a form of oppression that maintains the status quo

    2. is the best way to educate students

    3. helps to empower oppressed students

    4. is a way to educate students about economics and finances

  12. Which of the following is not an element of problem-posing education?

    1. Promoting equal dialogue between students and teachers

    2. Developing critical consciousness

    3. Giving students knowledge to repeat and memorize

    4. Using students’ past experience and local context

  13. According to Freire, the ultimate goal of education should be

    1. developing academic theories

    2. promoting activism to end oppression

    3. transforming society through a combination of theory and practical application

    4. maintaining the status quo

  14. Positive peace

    1. is the absence of war

    2. is a utopian ideal

    3. is the presence of social justice, equality, and the absence of structural violence

    4. all of the above

  15. Negative peace is

    1. the absence of peace

    2. the absence of war or physical violence

    3. includes the presence of social justice and equality

    4. the opposite of positive peace

  16. Transformative learning is important to peace education because

    1. the goal of peace education is to transform our society from a culture of war to a culture of peace

    2. peace education seeks to transform learners, teachers, and the outer world

    3. we cannot fix the problems of today with the same worldview that created them

    4. all of the above

  17. Which of the following is NOT part of the transformative model for peace education?

    1. diversity

    2. participatory learning

    3. the banking system

    4. globalized perspectives

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following figures is NOT a proponent of nonviolent resistance?

    1. Mahatma Gandhi

    2. Martin Luther King Jr.

    3. Che Guevara

    4. Gene Sharp

  2. A culture of peace includes

    1. environmental sustainability

    2. disarmament

    3. respect for human rights

    4. all of the above

  3. The culture of war does NOT include

    1. the free flow of information

    2. exploitation of people

    3. male domination

    4. belief in power that is based on force

 

 

 

Unit 2 Quiz

Section 1: Multiple Choice

  1. Education for peace

    1. teaches the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to create peace.

    2. creates the preconditions needed for peace.

    3. both A and B

  2. Education about peace

    1. answers the question “What is peace?”

    2. focuses on the development of institutions and practices that define a peaceful social order

    3. both A & B

  3. Human rights education is

    1. education for peace

    2. education about peace

    3. education for and about peace, depending on the approach taken.

  4. Critical pedagogy involves

    1. agreeing with conventional beliefs and norms

    2. analyzing beliefs and norms with the goal of empowerment and social transformation

    3. criticizing society

  5. Critical pedagogy should

    1. focus on a global perspective

    2. focus on critically analyzing the local situation

    3. not focus on controversial issues

  6. Critical peace education is different from critical pedagogy because

    1. it focuses on issues relating to peace and violence

    2. it does not involve critiquing beliefs and norms

    3. it does not involve social transformation

  7. The ultimate goal of disarmament education is

    1. reducing nuclear weapons only

    2. improving international security through military interventions

    3. general and complete disarmament

  8. Education for disarmament involves

    1. developing critical thinking and decision making skills

    2. developing compassion for other human beings

    3. developing the perception that disarmament is possible and probable

    4. all of the above

  9. Disarmament education

    1. should be linked to other areas of peace education such as Futures Education and Human Rights Education

    2. should be taught as an separate subject, distinct from other disciplines

    3. is not related to environmental education

  10. Which of the following is NOT a key document for human rights education?

    1. the UDHR

    2. the GATT

    3. the CRC

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a foundational principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

    1. universality

    2. indivisibility

    3. nondiscrimination

    4. independence

  2. The Convention on the Rights of the Child exists because

    1. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights does not apply to children

    2. children are a vulnerable group and need protection in addition to the UDHR

    3. children have more rights than everyone else

  3. The human right to education includes

    1. access to education

    2. quality of education

    3. respectful learning environments

    4. all of the above

  4. Global Citizenship Education is important for peace because

    1. patriotism and nationalism can be used to foster conflict between nations

    2. the world is becoming increasingly globalized

    3. both a & b

  5. Which skill is NOT a part of Global Citizenship Education?

    1. Debating

    2. Cooperation

    3. Fighting

    4. Critical thinking

  6. Multiculturalism involves

    1. minority cultures being absorbed into the majority culture

    2. acknowledging the multiple social identities of all individuals within a culture

    3. the separation of different cultures from one another

  7. Discrimination is

    1. the same as bias

    2. when you think about someone differently because of their identity

    3. an action that results in the unequal treatment of people because of their identities

  8. Anti-racism education seeks to

    1. examine power relations

    2. promote institutional change

    3. examines how racist ideas are entrenched in institutions

    4. all of the above

  9. The worldview associated with the Integrative Theory of Peace (ITP) is the

    1. identity-based worldview

    2. unity-based worldview

    3. conflict-based worldview

  10. Gender is

    1. the same as sex

    2. is socially constructed

    3. is the biological differences between males and females

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Gender is an important consideration for peace education because

    1. violence against women is a significant obstacle to peace

    2. women are often excluded from peacebuilding processes

    3. gender inequality and discrimination is one of the most pervasive forms of discrimination in the world

    4. all of the above

  2. Which of the following is NOT a key document relating to environmental education?

    1. The Rio Declaration

    2. The Stockholm Declaration

    3. The Pittsburgh Declaration

    4. The Tbisili Declaration

  3. The goals of environmental education include

    1. raising awareness of ecological interdependence between urban and rural areas

    2. developing the knowledge, values and skills to protect and improve the environment

    3. to create new patterns of behavior towards the environment at individual and collective levels

    4. all of the above

  4. Environmental issues and social justice issues

    1. are mutually exclusive

    2. are intrinsically linked and mutually beneficial

    3. are not related

    4. are not supportive of the same goals as peace education

  5. Causes of conflict include

    1. different values

    2. unmet psychological needs

    3. limited resources

    4. all of the above

  6. Which of the following is NOT a structured problem-solving process?

    1. Mediation

    2. Negotiation

    3. Debating

    4. Consensus decision-making

  7. The core competencies of Conflict Resolution Education include

    1. emotional awareness

    2. empathy

    3. problem solving

    4. all of the above

  8. Which of the following is NOT a key skill for Conflict Resolution Education?

    1. peer mediation

    2. nonviolent communication

    3. active listening

  9. Which of the following is NOT an approach to Conflict Resolution Education?

    1. The Peaceable Classroom Approach

    2. The Banking Approach

    3. The Mediation Program Approach

    4. The Process Curriculum Approach

 

 

 

  1. The Futures field includes

    1. futures education

    2. futures studies

    3. futures research

    4. time travel

  2. Futures education is relevant to peace education because

    1. it’s not – it is impossible to study something that does not yet exist

    2. it focuses on solutions and helps inform our actions in the present

    3. it is an issue-based approach

  3. The aim of Futures Education is to

    1. identify and envision alternative futures which are just and sustainable

    2. exercise critical thinking skills and the creative imagination more effectively

    3. participate in more thoughtful and informed decision making in the present

    4. all of the above

 

Section 2: Matching

 

 

  1. Bias

  2. Prejudice

  3. Enthnocentrism

  4. Relativism

  5. Stereotype

  6. Discrimination

  7. Institutional racism

  8. Personally mediated racism

  9. Internalized racism

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. prejudice and discrimination based on race

  2. thinking one’s own group’s ways are superior to others

  3. subjective opinion or disposition

  4. acceptance of negative messages about one’s own race

  5. a standardized set of ideas that represent a oversimplified depiction of a particular group

  6. not judging other group’s actions and judging them as equal to one’s own

  7. a preconceived notion or belief made without reason

  8. behavior that results in the unequal treatment of people because they are members of a particular group

  9. differential access to the goods, services and opportunities of society by race

 

 

 

 

1 The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/155 of 21 December 1995 , approved the amendment to article 43, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, replacing the word “ten” with the word “eighteen”. The amendment entered into force on 18 November 2002 when it had been accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States parties (128 out of 191).

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