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Haiti PD Program: Module 3

Page history last edited by Konrad Glogowski 5 years, 10 months ago

Module-3

Effective Learning through Student Engagement

 

 

Introduction:

This module will focus on the effective learning providing an insight about Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains and will also focus on how to engage students in learning through cooperative and student-centered strategies. It will guide the trainer to engage trainee teachers in different activities and help to learn how to employ teaching methodologies that promote active engagement with emphasis in community-based issues. They will also learn to develop and implement project based approaches of the teaching methods in their classroom.

 

Objectives: 

At the end of this session trainees will be able to---

• engage students in learning through cooperative and student-centered strategies

• employ teaching methodologies that promote active engagement with pressing community-based issues

• develop a variety of learning projects for students that can be used in their classroom

 

Instructions for Trainer

Warm-up: (10 minutes)

Tell the trainee teachers to form groups with 3/4 members and to think about their childhood when they went to school to recall what types of teaching methods their teachers used in the class and which ones they liked most and which ones they did not and why. They will also discuss which teaching method helped them to learn more and to remember the content for a longer period of time.

After group discussion they will share their opinion with the class.

 

 

 

Session 1: 

How to engage students in learning through cooperative and student-centered strategies.

 

Introduction: 10 minutes

➢ Tell the trainee teachers to discuss the diagram with the person beside him or her and to discuss whether they agree with this or disagree and why?

 

 

➢ Tell them to recall the sessions from the last two days and ask them how they felt working collaboratively with their classmates. Did they enjoy it? Did they learn more? If the session was delivered using the lecture method did they enjoy that more or less and why?

 

 

 

 

Introduction: 20 minutes

➢ Give a brief idea to your class about Bloom’s taxonomy using text-1. Also talk about how learning becomes effective when it happens in three domains which are mentioned in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Give example from your own learning experiences.

 

Hints: 

When we learn something by reading, we forget it quickly but when we learn something by doing or gaining some practical experience, we remember that in our long-term memory. This practical experience of learning by doing covers the Psychomotor Domain of learning. The learning which brings our attitudinal or behavioral changes is the learning of Affective domain. 

When learning happens in Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor domain, then it becomes meaningful and effective. We need to make learning meaningful for our students, so that they can apply it in real life.

 

Text-1

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains 

Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr. Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). 

The Three Domains of Learning 

The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, 1956):

 

 

 

 

o Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge)

o Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self)

o Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills)

Cognitive Domain

The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills (Bloom, 1956). This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.

Affective Domain 

The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes.

Psychomotor Domain 

The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.

 

➢ Now tell the trainees to form groups of 3 or 4 and mention the following ground rules to form and work in a group.

Ground rules for Group work: 

• Form a group with mixed genders.

• Try to form a group with new people you haven’t worked with before.

• Everybody will have active participation during group discussion.

• Everyone needs to have a unique and active role during group work and rotate the role (such as reporter, recorder, time keeper, and materials manager) in different group work.

• During different group work, everyone should take turns to present.

 

➢ Engage the trainee teachers in following activities and facilitate the whole process.

 

➢ Activity 1: (60 minutes)

• During group work, divide text-2 & 3 among your group members. 

• Each person will read their part silently and will share the gist of that part with the group.

• They will then discuss with their group members; “What the strategies of using cooperative learning are and how to use it?”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text-2

 

Cooperative Learning Strategies

 

By: Colorín Colorado (2007)

 

 

Cooperative Learning has been proven to be effective for all types of students, including academically gifted, mainstream students and English language learners (ELLs) because it promotes learning and fosters respect and friendships among diverse groups of students. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. Peers learn to depend on each other in a positive way for a variety of learning tasks.

Students typically work in teams of four. This way, they can break into pairs for some activities, and then get back together in teams very quickly for others. It is important, however, to establish classroom norms and protocols that guide students to:

• Contribute

• Stay on task

• Help each other

• Encourage each other

• Share

• Solve problems

• Give and accept feedback from peers

Cooperative Learning for ELLs

Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. Cooperative Learning activities promote peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts and content. It is important to assign ELLs to different teams so that they can benefit from English language role models. ELLs learn to express themselves with greater confidence when working in small teams. In addition to 'picking up' vocabulary, ELLs benefit from observing how their peers learn and solve problems. If you decide to assign each student a role (such as reporter, recorder, time keeper, and materials manager) in a team, you might want to rotate roles each week. This prevents what typically happens if students select their own roles - the same students wind up performing the same tasks. By rotating, students develop the skills they most need to practice.

Some Cooperative Learning strategies

There are some popular strategies that can be used with all students to learn content (such as science, math, social studies, language arts, and foreign languages). However, they are particularly beneficial to ELLs for learning English and content at the same time. Most of these strategies are especially effective in teams of four:

1. Round Robin

Present a category (such as "Names of Mammals") for discussion. Have students take turns going around the group and naming items that fit the category.

2. Roundtable

Present a category (such as words that begin with "b"). Have students take turns writing one word at a time.

3. Write around

For creative writing or summarization, give a sentence starter (for example: If you give an elephant a cookie, he's going to ask for...). Ask all students in each team to finish that sentence. Then, they pass their paper to the right, read the one they received, and add a sentence to that one. After a few rounds, four great stories or summaries emerge. Give children time to add a conclusion and/or edit their favorite one to share with the class.

4. Numbered Heads Together

Ask students to number off in their teams from one to four. Announce a question and a time limit. Students put their heads together to come up with an answer. Call a number and ask all students with that number to stand and answer the question. Recognize correct responses and elaborate through rich discussions.

5. Team Jigsaw

Assign each student in a team one fourth of a page to read from any text (for example, a social studies text), or one fourth of a topic to investigate or memorize. Each student completes his or her assignment and then help others to put together a team product by contributing a piece of the puzzle.

6. Tea Party

Students form two concentric circles or two lines facing each other. You ask a question (on any content) and students discuss the answer with the student facing them. After one minute, the outside circle or one line moves to the right so that students have new partners. Then pose a second question for them to discuss. Continue with five or more questions. For a little variation, students can write questions on cards to review for a test through this "Tea Party" method.

After each Cooperative Learning activity, you will want to debrief with the children by asking questions such as: What did you learn from this activity? How did you feel working with your teammates? If we do this again, how will you improve working together?

Other ideas

A simple way to start Cooperative Learning is to begin with pairs instead of whole teams. Two students can learn to work effectively on activities such as the following:

1. Assign a math worksheet and ask students to work in pairs.

2. One of the students does the first problem while the second acts as a coach.

3. Then, students switch roles for the second problem.

4. When they finish the second problem, they get together with another pair and check answers.

5. When both pairs have agreed on the answers, ask them to shake hands and continue working in pairs on the next two problems.

Literature circles in groups of four or six are also a great way to get students working in teams. You can follow these steps:

1. Have sets of four books available.

2. Let students choose their own book.

3. Form teams based on students' choices of books.

4. Encourage readers to use notes, post-its, and discussion questions to analyze their books.

5. Have teams conduct discussions about the book.

6. Facilitate further discussion with the whole class on each of the books.

7. Have teams share what they read with the whole class.

8. For the next literature circles, students select new books. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Text-3

How to Use Cooperative Learning

 

 

No matter what the setting is, properly designing and implementing cooperative learning involves five key steps. Following these steps is critical to ensuring that the five key elements that differentiate cooperative learning from simply putting students into groups are met. (Johnson et al., 2006, 2:30-31.)

1. Pre-Instructional Planning

Prior planning helps to establish the specific cooperative learning technique to be used and lays the foundation for effective group work. Plan out how groups will be formed and structure how the members will interact with each other. 

2. Introduce the Activity to the Students

Students need to get their "marching orders." Explain the academic task to them and what the criteria are for success. Then structure the cooperative aspects of their work with special attention to the components of positive interdependence and individual accountability. Set up time limits and allow for clarifying questions. 

3. Monitor and Intervene

This is where you let the groups run while you circulate through the room to collect observation data, see whether they understand the assignment, give immediate feedback and praise for working together. If a group is having problems, you can intervene to help them get on the right track. 

4. Assessment

Some informal assessment is already done while you are monitoring the groups during the exercise. However, once the group finishes their project, work should be assessed by both instructor and group. 

5. Process

Group processing involves asking the groups to rate their own performance and set goals for themselves to improve their cooperative work.

 

 

➢ Activity 2: (60 minutes)

➢ Tell the trainees to develop an activity to engage students in cooperative learning strategies by working with group members and demonstrate it to the class. During demonstration from each group, one person will role play as a teacher and rest of them will take the role of students.  

➢ At the end of their presentation, ask them randomly how they felt about using collaborative and student-centered strategies when it was demonstrated in the class, and would they like to use this method in their own teaching, why or why not?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Session 2: 

How to employ teaching methodologies that promote active engagement with pressing community-based issues.

 

Introduction: (20 minutes)

➢ Ask the trainee teachers to discuss with the person beside him or her, “What is the purpose of education?” After discussion, they will share their opinions with the class.

(Hints:

• be ready to take risks

• be able to problem-solve and think critically

• be able to look at things differently

• be able to work independently and with others

• be creative

• care and want to give back to their community

• have integrity and self-respect

• have moral courage

• be able to use the world around them well etc.)

 

➢ Then ask them “Why is it important to engage students in community services?” Take the answer randomly from the class.

➢ Give a brief idea about the importance of community involvement using the following text.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Text-4

Community Service & Learning

 

Service to the community – through food drives, raking the yard of an elderly neighbor, adopt-a-highway programs, teens teaching younger youth, teens mentoring children or youth determining community needs and helping solve community problems – helps young people learn caring, leadership and citizenship.

“Every year millions of Americans volunteer at more than one million non-profit organizations throughout the United States.”

(Volunteering: 101 Ways You Can Improve the World and Your Life, by Douglas M.Lawson. Alti Publishing, 1998) 

What youth gain from community service learning

By giving back to their communities, young people can:

• Learn the value of helping others.

• Develop leadership, communication, organizational skills and a sense of empowerment.

• Learn how important the connection is between subject matter and life in the community.

• Learn how to cooperate with one another and work as a team with diverse groups of people including adults, peers and others with different backgrounds and experiences.

• Succeed in an area different from academics, athletics or popularity.

• Build self-esteem from the positive results of their service.

• Develop problem-solving and decision-making skills by applying their knowledge to real-world situations.

• Develop a sense of being responsible for their community and a sense that citizenship requires them to actively participate in their community.

• Receive recognition for their efforts and possibly college scholarships.

• Experience the world of work.

Not only do young people gain by being involved in community service, the clubs and groups that they are in also experience benefits from planning and carrying out service projects.

 

Activity-3: (60 minutes)

➢ Work in a group of 3/4 and identify what the pressing issues are in your community and how you can guide your students to take leads in resolving those issues.

 

(Hints:

Pressing issues in your community could be:

• Many students don’t come to school due to poverty.

• There are many adults in the community who don’t know how to read or write.

• There is a canal or brook in the community which doesn’t have a bridge that prevents students to come to school.

• People are not aware about keeping the environment pollution free.

• People of the community are not aware about healthy eating, etc.)

 

➢ After group discussion each group will present their ideas to the class.

 

 

Session 3: 

How to develop a variety of learning projects for students that can be used in their classroom

 

Introduction: 20 minutes

➢ Provide a brief idea about Project Approach of teaching using the following text.

➢ Ask the trainee teachers-

• What approaches do you use in your own teaching that may be most like the 

Project Approach? 

• What are some distinctions you can see between your current practice and 

what might be required of you if you implement the Project Approach? 

 

Text-5

PROJECT-BASED LEARNING

 

Project-based learning refers to any programmatic or instructional approach that utilizes multifaceted projects as a central organizing strategy for educating students. When engaged in project-based learning, students will typically be assigned a project or series of projects that require them to use diverse skills—such as researching, writing, interviewing, collaborating, or public speaking—to produce various work products, such as research papers, scientific studies, public-policy proposals, multimedia presentations, video documentaries, art installations, or musical and theatrical performances, for example. Unlike many tests, homework assignments, and other more traditional forms of academic coursework, the execution and completion of a project may take several weeks or months, or it may even unfold over the course of a semester or year.

Closely related to the concept of authentic learning, project-based-learning experiences are often designed to address real-world problems and issues, which requires students to investigate and analyze their complexities, interconnections, and ambiguities (i.e., there may be no “right” or “wrong” answers in a project-based-learning assignment). For this reason, project-based learning may be called inquiry-based learning or learning by doing, since the learning process is integral to the knowledge and skills students acquire. Students also typically learn about topics or produce work that integrates multiple academic subjects and skill areas. 

 

In project-based learning, students are usually given a general question to answer, a concrete problem to solve, or an in-depth issue to explore. Teachers may then encourage students to choose specific topics that interest or inspire them, such as projects related to their personal interests or career aspirations. For example, a typical project may begin with an open-ended question (often called an “essential question” by educators): How is the principle of buoyancy important in the design and construction of a boat? What type of public-service announcement will be most effective in encouraging our community to conserve water? How can our school serve healthier school lunches? In these cases, students may be given the opportunity to address the question by proposing a project that reflects their interests. For example, a student interested in farming may explore the creation of a school garden that produces food and doubles as a learning opportunity for students, while another student may choose to research health concerns related to specific food items served in the cafeteria, and then create posters or a video to raise awareness among students and staff in the school.

 

In public schools, the projects, including the work products created by students and the assessment they complete, will be based on the same state learning standards  that apply to other methods of instruction—i.e., the projects will be specifically designed to ensure that students meet expected learning standards. While students work on a project, teachers typically assess student learning progress—including the achievement of specific learning standards—using a variety of methods, such as portfolios, demonstrations of learning or rubrics. While the learning process may be more student-directed than some traditional learning experiences, such as lectures or quizzes, teachers still provide ongoing instruction, guidance, and academic support to students. In many cases, adult mentors, advisers, or experts from the local community—such as scientists, elected officials, or business leaders—may be involved in the design of project-based experiences, mentor students throughout the process, or participate on panels that review and evaluate the final projects in collaboration with teachers.

 

The following are a few representative examples of the kinds of arguments typically made by advocates of project-based learning:

• Project-based learning gives students a more “integrated” understanding of the concepts and knowledge they learn, while also equipping them with practical skills they can apply throughout their lives. 

• Project-based learning mirrors the real-world situations students will encounter after they leave school, it can provide stronger and more relevant preparation for college and work. Student not only acquire important knowledge and skills, they also learn how to research complex issues, solve problems, develop plans, manage time, organize their work, collaborate with others, and persevere and overcome challenges.

• It reflects the ways in which today’s students learn. It can improve student engagement in school, increase their interest in what is being taught, strengthen their motivation to learn, and make learning experiences more relevant and meaningful.

• Since project-based learning represents a more flexible approach to instruction, it allows teachers to tailor assignments and projects for students with a diverse variety of interests, career aspirations, learning styles, abilities, and personal backgrounds. 

• This approach allows teachers and students to address multiple learning standards simultaneously. Rather than only meeting math standards in math classes and science standards in science classes, students can work progressively toward demonstrating proficiency in a variety of standards while working on a single project or series of projects. 

 

Activity-4: (60 minutes)

Now reshuffle the group members and form groups with whom you didn’t work before.

➢ Select one major issue of your community from the list you identified before. 

➢ Develop a plan on how you can engage your students to take the lead to resolve that issue for the development of the community using the following diagram. 

 

 

➢ How the project work will be assessed and could be incorporated into their curriculum.

➢ Present your ideas to the class.

 

 

 

 

 

Hints:

Issue: There are many adults in the community who don’t know how to read or write.

Strategies:

• Engage students in a project so that each student will help an adult from their community to read and write.

• Set a timeline, 6 months or 1 year for the project and engage students in group work to develop a work plan for the project.

• Assessment of the project: students will maintain journal on how many hours they have worked with the adults to help them to read and write. At the end of that period, the students will submit the sample work (writing) of the adult to the teacher as a proof on how much the adult has learnt. Based on that they will be given credit.

• Like Ontario High school Graduation requirements, it could be an integral part to complete a certain voluntary hour in the community.  

 

 

Session 4: Formative Evaluation on Module 3

 

Self-reflection: (40 minutes)

➢ “How will you engage your students in an effective learning?”

➢ “What strategies will you deploy to engage your students in community development?” 

➢ Share your views with your group members and each group will present their ideas to the class.

 

References: 

Bloom B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc. 

Colorín Colorado (2007). Cooperative Learning Strategies. Retrieved from

http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/cooperative/

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., Masia, B.B. (1973). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.

Michigan State University (2014). Community Service & Learning, Retrieved from

http://4h.msue.msu.edu/programs/community_service_learning

Simpson E.J. (1972). The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain. Washington, DC: Gryphon House. 

Study Guides and Strategies.(1996). Retrieved from

http://www.studygs.net/activelearn.htm

 

The Glossary of Education Reform (2013).Project-based Learning, Retrieved from

HTTP://EDGLOSSARY.ORG/PROJECT-BASED-LEARNING/

 

 

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